Leaving No One Behind In the Fight Against Gender Based Violence

In the last 15 days activities aimed at raising awareness and triggering solutions to eliminate gender based violence (GBV) has been in the front burner of public discourse. The 2017 16 Days of Activism against GBV has been celebrated with vigour by all from around the world.

Our organization- The Centre for 21st Century is grateful to all our partners who sent in their write up on the various aspect of #GBV , it is expected that as people from around the world read the different write ups no one will be left behind.


Leaving no one behind requires that we not only reach out to those online but also all those off line and on the ground. Ensuring that men women, boys girls and people leaving with disabilities anywhere and everywhere have their human rights to live a life devoid of violence is respected and protected.

Continuing the activism after the 16 days of activism is part of leaving no one behind. Actions to eliminate GBV should be continuous and consistent, we should never relent or relax.  Our actions against GBV from every corner of the globe provide the template for not leaving anyone behind until we end all forms of violence everywhere.

As the curtains draw on 2017 16 days of activism, remember it is the beginning of the renewal of our commitment to eliminate violence in our homes, communities and countries.


Centre for 21st Century Issues, calls on all governments and leaders everywhere to step it up against GBV by passing laws against GBV  and effectively enforce the laws. Let us give succour to the affected and ensure an enabling environment for peaceful- coexistence of all.

Titilope Akosa

Executive Director

Centre for 21st Century Issues

Who Will Speak For Women In Africa?



Uju Okeke






Ugoyo was born into the family of Elewes of Ogui kingdom in Africa

Her father Mr. Elewe refused to visit the clinic when he was informed that his wife gave birth to a sixth girl. He sent a message to Mrs Elewe not to bother returning home.

It took Mrs Elewe’s relatives several days to prevail upon Mr. Elewe to give her another chance. This was after Mrs Elewe stayed with a fetish doctor who bathed her in stream at midnight to wash off everything that connected her with bearing girl children

Mrs Elewe on returning to her matrimonial home resumed conjugal relations immediately as Mr Elewe was unwilling to delay in having a son. The gods smiled on her again as she took in barely one month after the birth of Ugoyo though she heard some women died from this.

Immediately she took in, she was taken back to the fetish doctor so that he will turn the sex of the foetus to male

Mrs Elewe, delivered a bouncing baby boy named Dataka. Mr Elewe and relatives were elated. The fetish doctor was honoured for successfully exorcising Mrs Elewe of the female child spirit

Dataka had the attention of all sundry for saving the family from the shame of loosing family name.

While growing up, many advantages passed Ugoyo by and went to her brother, with whom she was unequal.

Dataka was sent to school unlike Ugoyo who by the way was brighter. Well it did not matter as nobody wastes money educating a girl who will soon marry. They also said school had bad toilet, was too far, and she could be kidnapped on the road as the route was unsafe.

Ugoyo grew up lacking care but was dutiful and obedient, enduring the gruesome pain of circumcision, she was told she needed it for marriage.

One day old men came to their house. She was told to come greet her husband though she was yet to form breasts. The prayers said she will bear many sons.

The old man hit her and she ran to her parents who told her she was inferior to her husband and must have really offended him. They sent her back with relatives that begged for her. When beatings left scars on her, he was praised for loving her enough to correct her.

Seasons passed without pregnancy, more beatings happened and strange females frequented who she must serve.

Fetish priests prepared concoctions and prescribed healings including sleeping with her unconcerned about sexually transmitted infections and disease as procreative ability determined her womanhood.

He called her ‘man’ and threw her out, In-laws despised her, Women mocked her, Neighbors said she was bad luck, Society called her witch, her parents said she was a disgrace. She was told that Infertility diminished her humanness

Old man husband died and Ugoyo was forced to sleep with the corpse and drink water used in washing it to prove her innocence and non complicity in the natural event of death.

Rumors spread that government made laws but there was no change and nobody was prosecuted. She heard city dwellers mention Constitution and human rights but could they change culture?

Ugoyo was hungry and poor with no means of livelihood. She had no inheritance from her parents being female or old man husband, being childless. Smiles disappeared from her face; she was sick every day. She desired death and Death came. Her corpse was thrown into the evil forest.

Who killed Ugoyo?

There are many Mrs Elewes and Ugoyos in our world. Do you know any Mr Elewe, Oldman-Husband, In-laws, Neighbors, Society or even government dealing with Mrs Elewes and Ugoyos? What part are you playing Perpetrator or unconcerned onlooker? Will you join me so that we leave no one behind and end violence against women and girls today?


Education as a Tool for Women Empowerment

Olumide Idowu





Education is very essential for every one because it is the only education by which we can differentiate between human beings and animals. Education teaches us how we can live in a society that’s why education is important for everyone, for both men and women. In the past, women are denied education. They were not allowed to come out of the four walls of their houses. Domestic issues were their only education. But now we are living in 21st century where men and women are equal.  Men and women should be educated. They believe that women  have to take care of the children, stay home, clean up the house, and be the self-denying wife and mother. They think that the life of a woman is all about getting married, having children, and being bombarded with domestic affairs. But they do not understand that education is very important for women not only for them but for a whole family. Because women are the mothers of the future generation. If women are uneducated, the future generations will be uneducated.

Girls are far more likely than boys to perform hours of unpaid work in the home, including care-giving, cooking and cleaning. Their parents are less likely to enroll them in school. This continuing imbalance of power between the sexes in the public domain underscores the fact that education has not significantly addressed the strategic needs of women as a group – partly due to entrenched patriarchal systems and harmful gender stereotypes. Primary concern must now be how we can advance the right to education, in order to facilitate the rights and strategic needs of girls and women. How can educational institutions help eliminate harmful stereotypes regarding the traditional roles of women and men?

Men and women are like the two sides of a coin. Without one, the other cannot exist. Educating women not only will give an educated family but Education of women can also be helpful in eradicating many social evils such as dowry problem, unemployment problem, etc. Social peace can easily be established. A woman has to play three distinct parts in the course of her life in each of which certain duties are expected of her.

  • Duty of a woman is to be a good daughter,
  • Is to be a good wife,
  • Is to be a good mother.

Education teaches a mother what she should be. It also teaches her how she would do it to be a good daughter, a good wife and a good mother. Only With the help of education women can know their rights. Woman belongs to a weaker section of the society because she suffers from many handicaps due to rigid, outdated social customs and religious practices. But an educated woman cannot be exploited easily. She is aware of her rights and will go any length to defend them.

Thus education will enable women to make their children, husbands and parents truly happy. Consequently it is very important that women should be educated. On all these grounds female education is a vital necessity.


Olumide Idowu is an entrepreneur, environmentalist and activist who has successfully led grassroots campaigns in over 42 African countries with over 10  years  experience in the non-profit sector and specialized in practical issues associated with developmental issues. Olumide Idowu is the Co-Founder, Climate Wednesday (@ClimateWed). He can be contacted on Twitter via @OlumideIDOWU

Denying Education to a Girl Child is a form of Violence

Esther Ajayi- Lowo





Yes, denying education to a girl child is actually a form of violence against women and girls. I know you may wonder why, so let me break it all down. I define education as the ladder to freedom and liberty. It is any form of instruction for enlightenment of the mind that is provided in both formal and informal institutions. While education is important for every child regardless of gender, I focus on education for the girl-child because its denial easily predisposes the girl child to violence. Also, while I acknowledging that there are diverse forms of education that a girl child benefit from to be free from violence, this short write up is on how the denial of school education and sexuality education to a girl child is tantamount to violence in every sense. You are still wondering about the connection between denial of education to a girl and violence against a girl? Here is how:

First, let us talk about denying a girl child of school education. When you deny a girl child the opportunity of attending a formal school, you are violently seizing her future from her. Inadvertently, in Nigeria, most girls that never attended any school end up in the country’s statistics of child brides, street kids, hawkers on highways, children-raising kids, and victims of sexual and other violent acts. For instance, in Northern Nigeria where the percentage of gild child enrolment in school is the lowest is also where the statistics for child marriage and all its attendant consequences for diseases and mortality is highest. Several buckets of similar examples abound in other parts of Nigeria as well. So, remember that when you deny formal education to a girl child, you are violating her rights and her person, as well as opening up avenue for all other opportunistic violence against women that thrive on lack of education.

Second, denying a gild child sexuality education is also a form of sexual and reproductive violence. The education that a gild child needs is not only the reading and writing skills but also comprehensive information about her body and how to protect it from violence and violation. Sexuality education has been misunderstood as that which teaches girls to have sex, but this is totally wrong. It is rather a form of education that exposes people (girls especially, since this is my focus here) about taking charge of their sexual and reproductive lives. As defined by the Sexuality Education and Information Council of the United States (SEICUS), sexuality education is “a lifelong process of acquiring information and forming attitudes, beliefs, and values. It encompasses sexual development, sexual and reproductive health, interpersonal relationships, affection, intimacy, body image, and gender roles.” It is a form of education that empowers one to make informed decisions about their sex, sexuality, and relationships.

Against the backdrop of this understanding of sexuality education, what happens when a gild child is denied this type of education at home, in school, in religious institutions, and in the society at large? A denial of sexuality education to a gild child is a denial of her control over her sexuality, a ticket to her becoming sexually subservient and vulnerable to sexual violence and abuse of all kinds. Without sexuality education, a girl only ‘learns’ about her body and sexuality via the misguided information from peers, porn, and the internet; she ‘learn about sex, sexuality, and reproduction through personal, physical, and emotional experience of sexual violence and reproductive disasters. We rage about the rising statistics of teenage pregnancies, STDs/HIV/AIDS among young people, risky sexual behaviors, violent relationships, rape culture, sexual violence, and all kinds of reproductive mortality including maternal and infant. Yet, we would not have girls acquire the education needed to make informed sexual and reproductive decisions. This is not only a form of hypocrisy but an act of deliberate violence against the body, mind, soul, and spirit of a girl child.

To reiterate, all forms of education is a form of empowerment and enlightenment and denying a gild child of such is a direct and indirect form of violence. The violent impacts of denying education to a girl also has rippled effects for her when she matures to womanhood, for her children, and for her generation. Educating a girl child, therefore is the starting point of eliminating all forms of violence against women. Let all stakeholders including parents, teachers, religious leaders, and policy makers who are interested in ending violence take the important step of providing all forms of education for the girl child.


Sexuality Education and Information Council of the United States (SEICUS). (n.d). Comprehensive sexuality education. Retrieved from http://www.siecus.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=Page.ViewPage&pageId=514

Esther Ajayi-Lowo is a feminist activist and scholar. She is a Ph.D. student and Teaching Assistant at Texas Woman’s University in Denton, Texas. Esther had worked for over a decade with government and nongovernmental organizations on women’s rights and development issues in Nigeria prior to leaving for grad school in the United States; she also remains committed to feminist activism by working as a think-thank and program initiator for several nonprofit organizations and communities in Nigeria.

Why Would Men Physically Abuse Women?

John Baaki




It would have been needless to quote any statistics to prove violence against women, but to give you a fair idea of the situation, I have decided to bring here few national and global statistics, even though they may be smaller than the bigger picture.


There are different kinds of violence suffered by women, but for the purpose of this article, I will dwell on domestic violence – violence meted to women by their spouses or spouses’ family.


According to UN Women, it is estimated that 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced either physical and/or sexual violence from intimate partner or by a non-partner at some point in their lives.


Nigeria’s 2017 voluntary report on progress of implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), submitted to the High Level Political Forum (HLPF) has it that 34.9 percent of ever partnered women and girls aged 15 years and older were subjected to physical, sexual or psychological violence by a current or former intimate partner in the last 12 months.


You may ask, don’t men suffer physical violence from women? While my answer is in affirmative, less men (15%) suffer physical violence from women than women (85%) do from men.


It is still debatable why men physically abuse women. Some people think men by nature are aggressive and domineering beings and so are always threatened by any action or inaction from women that tries to diminish their domineering personality. Also, emboldened by some Biblical and Quoranic injunctions which see the man as the head of household, some men have made themselves gods before their wives. The Book of Ephesians 5:22-24 says “Wives, submit to your own husbands, as to the Lord. For the husband is the head of the wife even as Christ is the head of the church, his body, and is himself its Savior. Now as the church submits to Christ, so also wives should submit in everything to their husbands.” Similarly, the Book of 1 Timothy 2:11-15 and 1Corinthians 11:3 recognize man as the head of his family. According to the Holy Quran (4:34) – “Men are in charge of women, because Allah hath made the one of them to excel the other, and because they spend of their property (for the support of women). So good women are the obedient, guarding in secret that which Allah hath guarded. As for those from whom ye fear rebellion, admonish them and banish them to beds apart, and scourge them. Then if they obey you, seek not a way against them.”


Could these be the passages in the Holy Bible and Quoran which some men use to justify their physical abuse on women forgetting other passages in the same Bible and Quoran such as Ephesians 5:33 and 1 Peter 3:7 which admonish the man to love, respect and honor the wife just like himself and Quoran 4:34 which says men should not physically abuse their wives even though with a condition that if they obey them?

In Africa and in other parts of the world, men are recognized as heads of their households and this privilege extends to more recognition of men for leadership roles in public spaces.


It seems to me that, the religious and traditional leadership privileges given to man has bolstered his ego over women. He has forgotten that he is given a huge responsibility to ensure justice, peace, unity and development. As far as I am concerned, battery of a partner is the highest level of irresponsibility, an indicator of a power-drunk leadership. Majority of men abuse this rare leadership opportunity given to them as they openly abuse their wives in the presence of the children who grow up to think this is normal and continue with the trend. I am very lucky to have had a responsible father who I did not witness pick any quarrel with my mother, talk less of a fight. But not all children  are lucky as I am as physical abuse of mothers leads to disintegration of some families which affects education and general bringing up of children.


Violence against women has increased in frequency over the years and it is found to be one of the factors militating against full realization of the potentials of women which would have contributed to the development of society. In a bid to end violence against women, the United Nations established the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) which was adopted in 1979. The Convention calls on countries to implement laws and programs that will eliminate violence against women. Similarly, target 5.2 of the SDGs aims to end all forms of violence against women. In line with the CEDAW and the SDGs, the Nigerian government in 2015 enacted the Violence Against Persons Prohibition Act.


Unfortunately, all the available global and national instruments have not succeeded in reducing violence against women, but it is not impossible for violence against women to be eliminated.


Government has the biggest role to play to ensure that women are not physically abused by prosecuting people who are found culpable so as to deter others who may have intention of physically abusing women not to do so. Agencies of government like the Police that is the first point of call when issues of physical abuse occur are very critical in preventing violence against women if the reported cases of abuse are properly handled and prosecuted. But over the years it is observed that most reported cases of abuses are seen by the Police as a mere family matter, or in rape cases, the complainants are blamed for dressing seductively or for visiting a man to have been raped. This kind of attitude has led to many cases of abuse to go unreported while the victims suffer the psychological trauma in silence. Police are critical in the implementation of the Violence Against Persons Prohibition Act, but they can effectively contribute to the implementation of this law only if they are welcoming, open, listen, protect the victim and arraigns the perpetrators for prosecution.


The society also needs to change the way it looks at a woman as a lesser being, so much so that an abuse to a woman by a man is considered normal while abuse of a man by a woman is considered a sacrilege. Many women are at a risk of becoming homeless once the husband dies as some families don’t see her suitable to inherit the husband’s property.


There is also a big role for the traditional and religious leaders many of whom receive reports of abuses and look at them with patriarchal eyes and do not condem as they see nothing wrong with that. It is time they begin to see that there is everything wrong with physically abusing  anybody irrespective of his/her sex, and therefore condem or report unrepentant persons to the law enforcement agencies.


The Constitution of Nigeria has given the fundamental right to all her citizens including women and girls to be free from degrading and inhumane treatment. Physical abuse of women is a degrading and inhumane treatment and so is against the Constitution of Nigeria and a legal matter that requures justice.


Whatever reasons that may be advanced, they can never be sufficient and justifiable to physically abuse women.


Two questions always come to my mind when issues of abuse on women come up: All men are born of women, and why would men curse the breast that they suckled?, why would men not hit their male friends that wrong them, but hit their closest female partner that does so?


Say NO to violence against women.

“If My Mummy Beat My Daddy Who Should I Report To?”



Damilola Adeoye




“If my mummy beat my daddy who should i report to?” This is one of the interesting questions asked by pupils of low fee private school in Ojo local government area of Nigeria at a training  organized by centre for 21st Century In celebration of 2017 16 days of Activism against Gender Based Violence (GBV.) The  theme of the training is eliminating Gender based violence in  low fee private schools in Lagos state .

The objective of the training was to raise awareness about Gender based violence in school setting  and how to curb them. The training  brought together pupils , parents, proprietors, teachers and community leaders/members as participants in an interesting discussion.

Participants were enlightened about different forms  of violence which  include: Physical violence, emotional violence, sexual violence and technology violence. The need to protect the girl child from all forms of violence in school and at home was emphasized. Noting that statistics shows that  they are most vulnerable to violence. Pupils were encouraged to stop bullying each other and report any case of violence in their schools and communities.

The training triggered some amazing questions which could only be asked from a genuine  innocent  mind of children who are attentive and  ready to be agents of change in ensuring violence in all it forms are eliminated not only in their schools but also in their homes.  some of the questions include

  1. If a parent beat a child at home should they report to their teachers?
  • If a girl first beats a boy what should he do?
  • If someone is being maltreated in their community, who should they report to?
  • If mummy beat daddy and daddy did not do anything who should the child report to?

These questions  tend to reveal the scenarios of possible  pattern of violence which often occur in schools and at homes. Thus the children sought to know how they can take the right actions.

Teachers at the training emphasized the need to punish children when they misbehave and added that punishment  meted out to correct erring pupils should not be regarded as gender based violence  except if it is such that could cause grievous bodily harm to the child .

Some of the pupils demanded to know the appropriate person or authority  to report to if violence occur in the home.  Some asked whether it is appropriate to report to  their their grandparents or religious leaders  since as children they cannot go to the police.

They were advised to report to appropriate authorities in their school  but for home they should report to  those who  has showed tendency to listen to them.

They were also informed of the Lagos State Domestic Violence Law that says a person can report on behalf of someone else. In addition, teachers were admonished to take adequate and appropriate action towards a disobedient pupil. They could mentor the child to change or talk to the parents

It is important that schools create enabling environment for learning and school authorities should encourage children to develop a sense of independence and be able to speak out and protect themselves against any form of violence.


Domestic Violence



Dr. Alaba Oludare





Violence has been defined severally to include the use of physical force, words, intrusion, deprivation and distortion to injure, abuse, damage, destroy or cause fear or intimidation  in a person.  By typology, violence could also be racial, ethnic or domestic. Gender based violence has evolved over the years to describe violence directed towards a specific gender including domestic violence. The focus in this article is on domestic violence.

Domestic violence is the physical, sexual, emotional, psychological and economic abuse or threat in an intimate relationship such as marital, dating, parental and guardianship including ex-spouses, persons with child in common, persons with whom there is or was cohabitation. It often manifests as a long term cyclical pattern of abusive behavior and control to intimidate, manipulate, humiliate, isolate, frighten, terrorize, coerce, threaten, blame, hurt, injure, or wound the person.

The Cycle of Violence:


Behaviors identified as violent:

Physical Abuse: Hitting, slapping, shoving, grabbing, pinching, biting, hair pulling,  choking, wrestling and denial of medical care or forcing alcohol and/or drug use.

Sexual Abuse: Coercing or attempting to coerce any sexual contact or behavior without consent, marital rape, attacks on sexual parts of the body, forcing sex after physical violence has occurred, or treating one in a sexually demeaning manner.

Emotional Abuse: Undermining an individual’s sense of self-worth and/or self-esteem, constant criticism, diminishing one’s abilities, name-calling, or damaging one’s relationship with his or her children and others.

Economic Abuse: Economic or financial abuse is a subtle form of emotional abuse which usually involves withholding basic necessities (food, clothes, medications, shelter), preventing one from choosing own career, sabotaging  job (making him/her miss work, calling constantly or simple distractions), stealing or taking  money.  Making or attempting to make an individual financially dependent by maintaining total control over financial resources, withholding one’s access to money, or forbidding one’s attendance at school or employment.

Psychological Abuse: Causing fear by intimidation; threatening physical harm to self, partner, children, or partner’s family or friends; destruction of pets and property; and  forcing isolation from family, friends, or school and/or work.

Early signs of abuse

Quick tumultuous romance and excessive jealousy, clinging and tracking of partner’s activities

Attempts to isolate in the guise of loving behavior (You don’t need to work or go to school; we only need each other, criticizing friends/family for not caring about you)

Hypersensitivity to allegations of slights and quick to blame others for behavior

Pressured into doing things one is uncomfortable with

Statistics on Gender Violence

The US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics reports that on average annually- 85% women, 15% men are victims of domestic violence; 20% female high school students report being physically or sexually abused by a dating partner; Females ages 18 to 34 generally experience the highest rates of intimate partner violence; 14% teens report threats from their boyfriend or girlfriend to harm them or themselves to avoid a breakup; 65 % of those that abuse their partner also physically and/or sexually abuse their children; 37 % women seek care in hospital emergency rooms for violence related injuries and 25% of domestic violence crimes reported to police.


Socio- cultural and economic factors including the belief that abuse is acceptable, unemployment, substance abuse, poor stress management skills, isolation, and excessive dependence on abuser.  Also, belief in patriarchal hierarchy , although some scholars argue that patriarchal mindset does not necessarily lead to female abuse

Psychological or mental problems (anger, low self-esteem, personality disorder, jealousy and possessiveness)

External factors and spiritual problems





Gender based violence has substantial impact on the abused, family, friends, co-workers, witnesses, and the community at large with  children being the most vulnerable. Children face the risk of developmental problems, bedwetting, psychiatric disorders, school difficulties, aggression, low self-esteem, anxiety, sleep disorders, early pregnancy and marriage including truancy, running away and substance abuse.  Frequent exposure to violence in the home also teaches children that violence is a normal way of life – thereby, inadvertently producing the next generation of victims and abusers.

Stigmatization, severe emotional trauma for victim and witnesses such as depression, shame, anxiety,  panic  attacks, substance abuse posttraumatic stress disorder and confusion; suicide attempts, psychotic episodes, and slow recovery from mental illness, perplexity and disorientation.

Some victims spend more time at work, not wanting to go home, exhibit low self-esteem, sense of worthlessness, emotional highs, lows and numbness. Some may even withdraw from real life into an alternative reality such as the Internet. In many instances, severe injuries, broken relationships, dysfunctional families, spiritual illness or even death occurs.  All these factors make it difficult for survivors to mobilize resources.

Response to Violence

It is not uncommon  that victims who have had a prolonged exposure to violence become abusive too. The question is how to respond without becoming a victim

  1. Know the Lord and know yourself. Are you a brawler, contentious person, difficult to please? (Philippians 3:10; Proverbs 21:9; 19). Who are you? Where is your destination? How can you get there? Utilize the power of love! Love is a choice that Jesus Christ made in our favor. Abusive behavior is a choice just as love is a choice.
  2. A truly strong, powerful man isn’t threatened by a strong, powerful woman. Instead, he is challenged by her, he is inspired by her, he is pleased to relate to her as an equal.” “Keep modeling that behavior yourselves by promoting women in your companies, passing laws to empower women in your countries, and holding the same ambitious dreams for your daughters as you do for your sons.” (Michelle Obama, Young African Leaders International Summit, 2014)
  3. Adopt the 3 “L’s” of women’s empowerment — learning, labor and leadership (Christine Lagarde, managing director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).




The key ingredient for violent behavior is anger. Anger is a spirit hence a personality that you can subdue. According to Ecclesiastes 7:9  anger rests in the bosom of fools. To conquer the opposition, you must rule your spirit. the one that’s slow to wrath has great understanding but the hasty in spirit, exalts folly (Proverbs 14: 29). Anger is a choice. Decide against it, tame your tongue and walk away.

Scriptures on interpersonal relationships

Colossians 3: 12-25

  • 12 Put on therefore, as the elect of God, holy and beloved, bowels of mercies, kindness, humbleness of mind, meekness, longsuffering;
  • 13 Forbearing one another, and forgiving one another, if any man have a quarrel against any: even as Christ forgave you, so also do ye.
  • 14 And above all these things put on charity, which is the bond of perfectness.
  • 15 And let the peace of God rule in your hearts, to the which also ye are called in one body; and be ye thankful.
  • 16 Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom; teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord.
  • 17 And whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and the Father by him.
  • 18 Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as it is fit in the Lord.
  • 19 Husbands, love your wives, and be not bitter against them.
  • 20 Children, obey your parents in all things: for this is well pleasing unto the Lord.
  • 21 Fathers, provoke not your children to anger, lest they be discouraged.
  • 22 Servants, obey in all things your masters according to the flesh; not with eye service, as men pleasers; but in singleness of heart, fearing God;
  • 23 And whatsoever ye do, do it heartily, as to the Lord, and not unto men;
  • 24 Knowing that of the Lord ye shall receive the reward of the inheritance: for ye serve the Lord Christ.
  • 25 But he that doeth wrong shall receive for the wrong which he hath done: and there is no respect of persons.

1 Corinthians 7:3  Let the husband render unto the wife due benevolence: and likewise also the wife unto the husband –   (kindness, compassion, generosity, goodwill, largesse, bounty, charity, assistance, mercy, consideration, philanthropy, munificence)


Train and prepare children for future and continuously mentor the young men.  Engage men and boys in preventing violence against women and girls. Empower families through diffusion of gender power. This will require a reorientation on aversive norms.

Maintain the church as a place of refuge for battered spouses and children (Duncan, 2003)

Training for clergy and church leaders on dealing with domestic violence cases although research shows that most clergy do not see the need for specialized training (Livingston, 1994)

Government and nonprofit organizations should focus on assisting domestic violence victims

Education/public enlightenment: address the culture of blaming the victim e.g. he raped you because you dressed provocatively. Stop making the victim responsible for the aggressor’s choice of action or words. The mark of humanity as opposed to the base instinct of other mammals is temperance.

Toughening penalties against repeat sex or domestic violence offenders is important

Educating all stakeholders including victims, families, law enforcement officers, victim advocates, prosecutors and judges about domestic violence and sexual assault

Emphasize the need to report abuse to appropriate law enforcement authority


Women And Conflict in Nigeria



Bridget Osakwe




Recent conflict statistics show the increasing rate of civil based conflicts with women not only affected in more ways than men but are often targets for violent expression because of their gender. Also the continually reinforced patriarchal system means that the traumatic impact of violence and abuse on affected women are not adequately addressed as their needs and interests are often relegated to the background. Inadequate judicial structure means that often, a balanced reconciliation or restorative process is not followed.


As violent conflicts metamorphose and spread in Nigeria, it has become clear that the State institutions cannot sufficiently cope with the intervention alone. Women as key stakeholders in conflict prevention and peacebuilding have been underutilized and undermined. This is due to the fact that conflict and peace are highly gendered activities. Women and men not only have different access to power structures and material  resources before, during and after the escalation of a conflict; they also experience the pre-conflict phase, the open conflict, and the post-conflict situation in rather different ways. Violent conflicts in Nigeria communities as elsewhere in Africa illuminate masculinity and subjugate feminine expression. This situation has created a hierarchy where men are  relied upon to develop frameworks and strategies for preventing conflict and   rebuild violence torn societies. In a bid to ensure that their interests are duly considered, women groups have been working to promote gender  equality and partnership with men in all areas, including peace and security, bearing in mind their roles in community harmonization, mobilization and rehabilitation.


International instruments such as the UNSC Resolution 1325, and the other seven supporting resolutions- 1820, 1888, 1889, 1960, 2106, 2122, 2242 have broadened the discourse on issues of peace and security. This has strengthened the normative framework for women’s participation in decision-making, conflict prevention and peacebuilding; protection of women and girls’ rights; and prevention of sexual violence in conflict.   However, the women, peace and security agenda mandating women’s active participation and involvement in peace and security at all levels and sectors both formal and informal as well as emphasising issues of sexual violence in armed conflict and sanctioning perpetrators important for engendering peacebuilding are largely unknown.


Bridget Osakwe is National Network Cordinator of West African Network for peace building (WANEP), Nigeria  



Facts & Figures: Ending Violence Against Women


Various Forms of Violence

  • It is estimated that 35 per cent of women worldwide have experienced either physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence or sexual violence by a non-partner at some point in their lives. However, some national studies show that up to 70 per cent of women have experienced physical and/or sexual violence from an intimate partner in their lifetime [1].
  • Women who have been physically or sexually abused by their partners are more than twice as likely to have an abortion, almost twice as likely to experience depression, and in some regions, 1.5 times more likely to acquire HIV, as compared to women who have not experienced partner violence [2].
  • Although little data is available—and great variation in how psychological violence is measured across countries and cultures—existing evidence shows high prevalence rates. Forty-three per cent of women in the 28 European Union Member States have experienced some form of psychological violence by an intimate partner in their lifetime [3].
  • It is estimated that of all women who were the victims of homicide globally in 2012, almost half were killed by intimate partners or family members, compared to less than six per cent of men killed in the same year [4].
  • More than 1 in 4 women in Washington DC, United States, have experienced some form of sexual harassment on public transportation, according to a survey conducted in 2016 [5].
  • Worldwide, almost 750 million women and girls alive today were married before their 18th birthday. Child marriage is more common in West and Central Africa, where over 4 in 10 girls were married before age 18, and about 1 in 7 were married or in union before age 15. Child marriage often results in early pregnancy and social isolation, interrupts schooling, limits the girl’s opportunities and increases her risk of experiencing domestic violence [6].
  • Around 120 million girls worldwide (slightly more than 1 in 10) have experienced forced intercourse or other forced sexual acts at some point in their lives. By far the most common perpetrators of sexual violence against girls are current or former husbands, partners or boyfriends [7].
  • At least 200 million women and girls alive today have undergone female genital mutilation in the 30 countries with representative data on prevalence. In most of these countries, the majority of girls were cut before age 5. [8].
  • Adult women account for 51 per cent of all human trafficking victims detected globally. Women and girls together account for 71 per cent, with girls representing nearly three out of every four child trafficking victims. Nearly three out of every four trafficked women and girls are trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation [9].
  • One in 10 women in the European Union report having experienced cyber-harassment since the age of 15 (including having received unwanted, offensive sexually explicit emails or SMS messages, or offensive, inappropriate advances on social networking sites). The risk is highest among young women between 18 and 29 years of age [10].
  • An estimated 246 million girls and boys experience school-related violence every year and one in four girls say that they never feel comfortable using school latrines, according to a survey on youth conducted across four regions. The extent and forms of school-related violence that girls and boys experience differ, but evidence suggests that girls are at greater risk of sexual violence, harassment and exploitation. In addition to the resulting adverse psychological, sexual and reproductive health consequences, school-related gender-basedviolence is a major obstacle to universal schooling and the right to education for girls [11].
  • Twenty-three per cent of female undergraduate university students reported having experienced sexual assault or sexual misconduct in a survey across 27 universities in the United States in 2015. Rates of reporting to campus officials, law enforcement or others ranged from 5 to 28 per cent, depending on the specific type of behavior [12].
  • Eighty-two per cent of women parliamentarians who participated in a study conducted by the Inter-parliamentary Union in 39 countries across 5 regions reported having experienced some form of psychological violence while serving their terms. Psychological violence was defined as remarks, gestures and images of a sexist or humiliating sexual nature made against them or threats and/or mobbing to which they might have been subjected. They cited social media as the main channel through which such psychological violence is perpetrated; nearly half of those surveyed (44 per cent) reported having received death, rape, assault or abduction threats towards them or their families [13].

Measures to Address Violence

  • In the majority of countries with available data, less than 40 per cent of the women who experience violence seek help of any sort. Among women who do, most look to family and friends and very few look to formal institutions and mechanisms, such as police and health services. Less than 10 per cent of those women seeking help for experience of violence sought help by appealing to the police [14].
  • At least 140 countries have passed laws on domestic violence, and 144 have laws on sexual harassment. However, even when laws exist, this does not mean they are always compliant with international standards and recommendations or implemented. Still, 37 countries exempt rape perpetrators from prosecution when they are married to or subsequently marry the victim [15].
  • Availability of data on violence against women has increased significantly in recent years. Since 1995, more than 100 countries have conducted at least one survey addressing the issue. More than 40 countries conducted at least two surveys in the period between 1995 and 2014, which means that, depending on the comparability of the surveys, changes over time could be analysed [16].

Violence among vulnerable groups

  • Evidence suggests that certain characteristics of women, such as sexual orientation, disability status or ethnicity, and some contextual factors, such as humanitarian crises, including conflict and post-conflict situations, may increase women’s vulnerability to violence [17].
  • In 2014, 23 per cent of non-heterosexual women (those who identified their sexual orientation as lesbian, bisexual or other) interviewed in the European Union indicated having experienced physical and/or sexual violence by both male and female non-partner perpetrators, compared with five per cent of heterosexual women [18].
  • In a survey of 3,706 primary schoolchildren from Uganda, 24 per cent of 11 to 14-year-old girls with disabilities reported sexual violence at school, compared to 12 per cent of non-disabled girls [19].


[1] World Health Organization, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, South African Medical Research Council (2013). Global and regional estimates of violence against women: prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence, p.2. For individual country information, see The World’s Women 2015, Trends and Statistics, Chapter 6, Violence against Women, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2015 and UN Women Global Database on Violence against Women.

[2] Ibid.

[3] European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2014). Violence against women: an EU-wide survey, p. 71.

[4] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2014). Global Study on Homicide 2013, p. 14.

[5] Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (2016). Understanding Sexual Harassment on Public Transportation, in UN Women (2017), Corporate Brief Safe Cities and Safe Public Spaces.

[6] UNICEF (2017). Is every child counted? Status of Data for Children in the SDGsp. 54.

[7] UNICEF (2014). Hidden in Plain Sight: A Statistical Analysis of Violence against Children, p. 167.

[8] UNICEF (2016). Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A global concern.

[9] UNODC (2016). Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2016, p. 7, 28.

[10] See European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2014). Violence against women: an EU-wide survey, p. 104.

[11] Data taken from (i) Education for All Global Monitoring Report (EFA GMR), UNESCO, United Nations Girls’ Education Initiative (UNGEI) (2015). School-related gender-based violence is preventing the achievement of quality education for all, Policy Paper 17, and (ii) UNGEI (2014). End School-related gender-based violence (SRGBVB) infographic.

[12] Cantor, D., Fisher, B., Chibnall, S., Townsend, R., Lee, H., Bruce, C., and Thomas, G. (2015). Report on the AAU Campus Climate Survey on Sexual Assault and Sexual Misconductp.13, 35.

[13] Inter-Parliamentary Union (2016). Sexism, harassment and violence against women parliamentarians, p. 3.

[14] United Nations Economic and Social Affairs (2015). The World’s Women 2015, Trends and Statisticsp. 159.

[15] World Bank Group (2015)Women, Business and the Law 2016, database.

[16] Ibid, p. 140.

[17] See European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2014). Violence against women: an EU-wide survey, Annex 3, p. 184-188.

[18] Ibid.

[19] Devries, K., Kyegome, N., Zuurmond, M., Parkes, J., Child, J., Walakira, E. and Naker, D. (2014). Violence against primary school children with disabilities in Uganda: a cross-sectional study, p.

Source UN Women http://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/ending-violence-against-women/facts-and-figures



Gender Based Violence in Education


Adekunle Akinde



Girls’ education is as paramount as boys’ education for the development of the society. Women should be given equal opportunity in terms of education. On this note let’s take a look at gender-based violence and education.

Gender-based violence can be described as any form of violation or discrimination neither directly or indirectly against female as a result of physical, sexual and psychological against women and young girl. These can occur inform of rape, sexual harassment and intimidation at work and school, forced prostitution and women and girls trafficking.

The UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (DEVAW) adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1993 has been influenced by CEDAW General Recommendation No. 19. It defines VAW as: “Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likley to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.” (Article 1) The declaration encompasses all forms of gender-based violence against women (physical, sexual and psychological), no matter in which context or setting they occur:

Gender-based violence most occurred against female sex than male across the world. While men and boys can also be a victims of violence through physical or verbal attacks for transgressing predominant concepts of masculinity. But the main focus here is violence against women and girls in schools because they are weak and vulnerable.

Meanwhile, it has been generally accepted that the majority of persons affected by gender-based violence are women and girls, due to imbalance dissemination of roles and power in the society between both sexes or as a result of gender discrimination.

The primary targets of GBV are women and adolescent girls, but not only are they at high risk of GBV, they also suffer exacerbated consequences as compared with what men endure. As a result of gender discrimination and their lower socio-economic status, women have fewer options and less resources at their disposal to avoid or escape abusive situations and to seek justice. They also suffer (…) consequences [on their sexual and reproductive health], including forced and unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions and resulting deaths, traumatic fistula, and higher risks of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV.” (UNFPA Strategy and Framework for Action to Addressing GBV, 2008-2011, p. 7)

As discussed gender-based violence, it also important to look at forms; physical and non-physical violence.

Forms of violence against women are: Domestic violence, Sexual violence, Physical violence, Emotional violence, Psychological violence and Economic violence.

Gender-based violence occurs at workplace and schools environments as a result of demand for sex in exchange for job position, promotion and opportunity. As it affects both sexes, women and girls are most affected in the society. Gender-based violence limits girl’s access to education and challenges in finding jobs after graduation.

Students suffer sexual harassment in higher institutions as lecturers’ demands for sex in other for pass marks. These can result in unwanted pregnancy which leads to abortion. In most case such student becomes sexual slave as often demands. Such victims developed emotional trauma and gradually morally destabilized in studies as the perpetrators continues to demand more. Most female students have faced series of violence neither from lecturers or fellow mate due to their physical appearance and beauty. Women and girls with big bottom or breast are mostly attracted to men in higher learning environment.

In most case, some young girls have left schools and unable to further their education as they are not able to withstand the sexual harassment faced in the learning environments. Sometimes, some are forced out of school due to pregnancy as some school would not allow their reentry anymore. At this stage, it is important to know that both married men and single men demand for sex at every point in time. This leads to the following: kidnapping, threats, attacks, harassments, physical and sexual assault. It is a serious harm to the female sex as it results to unwanted pregnancy and abortion. Many cases of gender violence in schools go unreported or under-reported because students fear victimization, punishment or ridicule.

Gender based violence is not specific to a social group, tribe, ethnicity, religion or particular country but a universal problem that caused serious violation to women and girls. Gender-based violence absolutely distresses girls’ self-esteem and ability to learn in school. This is even worsened by the fact that parents are often hesitant to speak out.

The big question is “How can this be eliminates in the educational sectors?” or the learning environment.

The persistent inequality between both sexes holds society in doubt and eventually generational challenge. Poverty is another important factor influencing female sexual abuse in school, at work and society at large. This leads many young girls into sexual service in exchange for money (transactional sex) or the sugar daddy syndrome to meet their financial needs. While on campus at the university some young girls engaged in transactional sex to make income as others see it a fashionable.

According to a graduate of one university: I used to see posh cars parked outside girls’ hostel mostly on Fridays. Men with big tummies would pull their heads out and seduce girls as they pass from supper or classes. Eventually they would hook up with some girls whom they would take out for discos and drinking sprees. Many of these girls ended up pregnant or getting infected with HIV AIDs. It never occurred to me that this was gender violence until later after when I got sensitized on gender violence. In the modern society sexual services are treated as commodities that should be paid for. Some of the girls had more than one “sugar daddy” at a time. However, this interaction may have negative effects. Also the type of interaction between teachers and male and female students raises issues. Transactional sex for “good exam results” is replicated both between teachers and pupils in schools and between students and teachers in training colleges. In some situations this becomes normalised, “it’s the way things are” yet girls are blamed from becoming pregnant and damaging family honour. Many schools do not accept their reentry as mothers yet the punishment on perpetrators is minimal of it all.


  • Boys should be enlighten and trained in schools on gender-based violence and violence against women.
  • Parents should avoid fighting each other at home and uses of abuse words in the presence of their children.
  • Parents/guardians and teachers should teach about gender based violence in schools, homes and religions places.
  • Parents should listen to their child and take ACTION when they report such cases.


Together we can make our educational/ institutions and the world at large a safe place by eliminating violence in education.

Adekule Akinde is the Communication and Media officer of Centre for 21st Century Issues